Configuring Pass, the Standard Unix Password Manager

Posted by Ryan Himmelwright on Wed, Dec 12, 2018
Tags linux, homelab, network, dotfiles
Liberty Warehouse Apartments, Durham, NC

I’ve been using pass to manage my passwords for quite some time. During the early days of use, I occasionally had difficulty configuring it on new machines, but those days appear to be long gone. It is a simple, generic, yet flexible system. Here’s how to get started.

(but first, some background… feel free to skip ahead)

My Password Manager History

For the longest time, I didn’t use a password manager (in my defence, not many people did). Then in college, I started using LastPass. It was simple and made it easy to switch all of my passwords to randomly generated ones. I had a good system that worked for a few years, and was even able to integrate my yubikey with it.

LastPass logo

Then in 2015, Lastpass was acquired by LogMeIn, which had a questionable past of Linux support. Like many others in the open source community… I started looking for alternatives.

I had already been searching for a LastPass replacement even before the acquisition. My search was mainly fueled by one big issue I had with LastPass… it required a web browser to use. Additionally, to utilize it’s full feature set, it needed to run as a Chrome or Firefox plugin. As someone who often uses alternative web browsers (like qutebrowser), or works on headless machines, I try not to use applications that exist solely as a FireFox/Chome app. I am also not a fan of pure website-apps in general.

So, as the I watched others switch password managers amongst the acquisition hype, one switch I remember seeing was Chris Fischer of the Linux Action Show. In episode 387 of LAS, Chris and Noah (his co-host) discussed LastPass alternatives, and Chris highlighted his switch to pass. While I don’t think he kept with the system long-term… I have.

What I like about pass

Unix Philosophy “Simplicity”

Okay. The average computer user will not think pass is “simple”. I agree. However, being designed to follow the Unix philosophy, pass’s architecture is. Basically, pass is just a nice wrapper around a bunch of gpg encrypted text files. It is a minimal, but tested solution. This model makes pass easily compatible with many other great tools, such as bash, git, dmenu, xmonad and emacs.

Command Line Tool

As a command-line tool, I can use pass anywhere. It doesn’t matter how conventional or strange the setup may be. I can have it on my desktop, on a headless server, or even inside a container. It makes no difference. Even if I am on a public computer, if I can ssh into one of my servers, I can access my passwords.


By default, pass assumes the first line of a store file is the password. However, the multi-line contents of a pass file can be anything. For example, pass could be used securely store encrypted notes. This gives the system a ton of flexibility, as the password items don’t have to conform to any sort of template.

Installing Pass & Help Packages

On Fedora, pass can be installed using dnf. For other systems, check out the “Download” section of the pass website.

sudo dnf install pass

Configuring Pass

After installing pass, there are few steps to configure it. First, we need to create a gpg key if one doesn’t already exist. Then, we need to initialize a password-store using that key.

Note: I went a little heavy with the animation images in the remainder of the post. Sorry. I hope they are more useful than annoying. Being a visual learner, at the very least they are helpful for me when I reference this post in the future. …

New GPG Key

animation running gpg --gen-key
Generate a new gpg key with `gpg2 --full-gen-key`.

To create a gpg key, the gpg2 --gen-key command is normally used. However, I opted to use gpg2 --full-gen-key, which allows for a bit more control during setup. The command will prompt for several bits of information, and the default selections are generally fine for most of the options (Personally, I use a 4096-bit key, because… why not?). At the end it will ask for a name, Password, and optional comment.

It should be noted that gpg2 most likely needs to be used instead of gpg for pass. However, it may vary depending on distribution and the package versions.

Pass Init

Crating new pass store with pass init
Initialize a new pass store with `pass init`.

After a gpg key has been generated, it can be used with pass. First, find the key’s ID by using gpg2 --list-secret-keys. Then, configure pass with pass init GPG-KEY-ID. This will create a password-store directory, located by default at ~/.password-store/.

Add some items

Adding, editing, and retrieving some passwords with `pass`, `pass insert`, `pass generate`, and `pass edit`
Adding, editing, and retrieving some passwords with `pass`, `pass insert`, `pass generate`, and `pass edit`.

With pass initialized, lets start adding passwords to it! Here are some of the most common commands to do so:


Simply put, pass insert … inserts a password. Call it with the desired folder/file structure for the password, and pass will then prompt for the password to save. That’s it.

pass insert Shopping/

pass generate

In addition to inserting existing passwords, pass can also generate new ones using pass generate. Just provide the password path, and optionally the length of the password. Pass will then generate a random password, spit it out on screen, and insert the entry to the password-store.

pass generate Shopping/SomeFakeStore/ryan 35

pass edit

Generating passwords is great, but being a forgetful person, I like to keep additional information in my pass entries (username, email, website url). This is where pass edit comes in. When called, pass edit will open up the contents of the entry in the default editor. From there, make the changes, and save.

For example:

pass edit Shopping/SomeFakeStore/ryan

Then, in vim:

Username: ryan
Password: <&DdU1x<&~&{;w7w"kvsWdHAF-\Vi"I9Q)I
Notes: I love this place!


Lastly, to retrieve stored passwords, call pass with the password entry. Optionally, use the -c flag to copy the password (first line if a multi-line entry) to the clipboard instead of spewing it into the terminal.

pass Shopping/SomeFakeStore/ryan
## or ##
pass -c Shopping/SomeFakeStore/ryan

Making Pass Better

With pass’s flexibility, there are many additional features to help improve it for each user’s needs. For me, there are two extensions that make my pass experience much more enjoyable.

Pass Git

Managing and maintaining the password-store with `pass git`
Use git to automatically maintain your password-store

Password-Store items are text files, which allows them to be easily version controlled. Consequently, pass has built in support for git with the pass git command. If a password-store is linked up to a git repo, normal git commands (add, mv, rm…) can be used with the store.

Additionally, when modifying the store’s contents, pass git will automatically create commits that reflect the changes. After adding or modifying a password, issue the command pass git push on the updated machine, and then pass git pull on others to sync the changes.


`passmenu` lets you easily search and select a pass item.

While having a CLI password manager is nice when working with headless systems, it can be a bit cumbersome for normal day-to-day use. Hence, passmenu.

Passmenu is a script (now built into the upstream project) that wraps dmenu around pass. When passmenu is run, dmenu opens up with all the password-store items to search/filter from. When an item is selected in dmenu, the user is prompted for the gpg password (if it hasn’t been unlocked recently), after which the password is then temporarily added to the user’s clipboard.

On all my computers, I bind the command passmenu to the keys SUPER + SHIFT + P. Whenever I need a password, I just hit those three keys, and dmenu pops up so I can search for the password I want. After typing in my master passphrase, I can paste the password wherever I need it. Passmenu makes pass much more reasonable to use.

See Also: rofi-pass

Setting up your pass setup on a new system

Now that I’ve done it over a hundred times, setting up a new system is easy. Here’s my usual steps:

Export GPG Key

Export a gpg key to use with pass on another system
Export a gpg key to save or use on another system.

First, export the password-store’s gpg key. To do that, use gpg2 --list-secret-keys to confirm the key’s ID, then export that key to a file with the following command:

gpg2 --export-secret-keys KEY-ID >> key-filename.gpg

Next, transfer that file to the new machine.

Import GPG Key

Import a gpg key and trust it to use with pass
Import and trust a gpg key to use it with pass.

On the new machine, import the gpg key using the following command (note, you will be required to enter the key’s passphrase):

gpg2 --import key-filename.gpg

After the key is imported, its trust level will have to be set to ultimate. Use the command gpg2 --edit-key KEY-ID to enter the edit prompt. From there, type trust and hit ENTER. The various levels will be shown on screen. Enter and confirm 5, to select ‘Ultimate’. Lastly, use quit to leave the gpg key editor.

Pull Pass Repo

With the keys configured, the last step is to pull down the password-store to the new machine. If using git, this can be done with pass git clone… but if I’m being honest, I usually just do a normal git clone, and then move the folder to ~/.password-store/. If not using git, just copy the store’s directory and files to the new machine. The important thing is that the store can be found at ~/.password-store (by default, this of course can be changed using pass init).


That’s about it. As I previously stated, I’ve been loving pass for years, and I don’t plan to be switching off of it any time soon. At this point, if there is something I want to improve with my password setup… I’m sure the community has already figured out how to do it with pass!

Next Post:
Prev Post:

Shell Stuff: Easy File Cleanup Designing my new Ryzen Workstation